With your download, get the 26 best papers relevant to this one, including 20 top related papers. Types of staining techniques used in microbiology and. While many traditional lab manuals are lengthy and comprehensive, descriptions of the labs in this manual are kept minimal to encourage students to further research the procedures and results on their own. The gram staining technique is the most important and widely used microbiological differential staining technique. Innovating science microbiology kit is used to grow, stain, and study bacteria. Stains microbiology resource center truckee meadows.
It is a handy little book and a good reference for bench work. Isolation of pure culture, gramstaining, and microscopic observation prepared by. The gram stain was first used in 1884 by hans christian gram gram,1884. A laboratory guide for medical microbiology 9781438960289. The gram stain is the most common differential stain used in microbiology. Flood slide with crystal or gentian violet 60 seconds. It is used to differentiate between gram positive organisms and gram negative organisms. A laboratory experience permits a glimpse into both the good and. The name comes from the danish bacteriologist hans christian gram, who developed the technique gram staining differentiates bacteria by the chemical and physical. Bacteria sampling formerly disposable lab equipment should be followed by gram staining, then using a microscope this work was supported by usda csrees and usda national institute of food and agriculture under two higher education challenge grant projects.
Manual buruli ulcer, diagnosis of mycobacterium ulcerans disease available in pdf format. Bacteria that stain purple with the gram staining procedure are termed grampositive. Gram staining helps to identify bacterial pathogens in specimens and cultures by their gram reaction gram positive and gram negative and morphology coccirod. The gram stain procedure has been basically unchanged since it was first developed in 1884. This differential staining procedure separates most bacteria into two groups on the basis of cell wall composition. The difference in result is due to the differences in the cell wall structure or composition of bacteria that causes the different in the reaction with the series of reagents in gram staining talaro, 2007. Gram staining microbiology formal lab report free essays. Introduction to staining live specimens are difficult to see with the bright field microscope. For example, gram staining can help clinicians classify bacterial pathogens in a sample into categories associated with specific properties. Please tear this grading key out of your lab book and attach it to your lab. It is a technique used to differentiate types of bacteria using certain physical and chemical characteristics of their cell walls. Gram staining is a procedure used to differentiate between two different.
The gram stain should almost always be done as the first step in diagnosis of a bacteria infection. Gram staining is the most sensitive method by which to visualize and recognize nocardiae in clinical specimens. Introduction gram staining is the most essential and universally used staining technique in bacteriology laboratory. Gramnegative bacteria tend to be more resistant to certain antibiotics than grampositive bacteria. Gram stain the previous lab introduced simple staining techniques that enable microbiologists to observe the morphological characteristics of bacteria. Gram stain is a very important differential staining techniques used in the initial characterization and classification of bacteria in microbiology. In the microbiology lab, the specimen will be centrifuged to concentrate any cells in a sediment. This book has been specifically designed for people working in the medical microbiology laboratory with little or no practical experience in medical.
In 1884, physician hans christian gram was studying the etiology cause of respiratory diseases such as. Simple, negative, and gram stain biology libretexts. Gram was searching for a method that would allow visualization of cocci in tissue sections of lungs of. The gram staining technique differentiates the mixed culture cells into two terms as grampositive bacteria and gramnegative bacteria. As a student of clinical microbiology, this atlas has helped to reinforce my ability to discern subtle detail in gram stain interpretation. This test differentiate the bacteria into gram positive and gram negative bacteria, which helps in the classification and differentiations of microorganisms. Gram staining is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic division. Laboratory perspective of gram staining and its significance in investigations of infectious diseases yunusa thairu 1, idris abdullahi nasir 1, yahaya usman 2 1 department of medical microbiology, university of abuja teaching hospital, gwagwalada, abuja, nigeria 2 department of medical laboratory science, faculty of medicine, ahmadu bello university, zaria, kaduna, nigeria. A rapid method for distinction between gramnegative and grampositive bacteria by means of a 3% solution of potassium hydroxide is tested on 71. Gram staining from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia a gram stain of mixed staphylococcus aureus staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923, grampositive cocci, in purple andescherichia coli escherichia coli atcc 11775, gramnegative bacilli, in red, the most common gram stain reference bacteria gram staining or. Gram staining method, the most important procedure in microbiology, was developed by danish physician hans christian gram in 1884. It is called a differential stain since it differentiates between grampositive and gramnegative bacteria. Looking beyond bacteria to find fungi in gram stained smear.
The unique cellular components of the bacteria will determine how they will react to the different dyes. If this layer contents a large amount of it, the bacteria are gram positive, gram negative. All questions will be asked about the general safety of the lab that are discussed in this. Staining and streaking protocols for simple stain, gram stain, streak plate technique and culture maintenance lab 2a. James, sherman natalie, microbiology a laboratory manual, seventh edition, pearson education. The gram stain easily divides bacteria into two groups. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Gram stain, a widely used microbiological staining technique that greatly aids in the identification and characterization of bacteria. This method is used to distinguish between gram positive and gram. Gram staining lab introduction gram staining is a very important technique used in biology labs all over the world. It was developed by danish microbiologist hans christian gram in 1884 as an effective method to distinguish between bacteria with different types of cell walls, and even today it remains one of the most frequently used staining.
The gram stain is the most widely used staining procedure in bacteriology. Labsafety quiz will be available on canvas before the first session of the scheduled lab and need to be submitted before the second lab session. It can also be utilized to assess the quality of clinical specimens and as a critical test for rapid and presumptive diagnosis of infective agents directly from specimens 1, 2, 3. Bacteria that stain purple with the gram staining procedure. The gram stain is used to classify bacteria on the basis of their forms, sizes, cellular morphologies, and gram reactions.
Lab manual this lab manual was created to support a microbiology course for allied health students. Gram staining is a differential staining technique that differentiates bacteria into two groups. The first step in gram staining was to place the primary stain, crystal violet or methylene blue, on the slide where the bacteria were heat fixed. Dotson md, jeanine wienerkronish md, in critical care secrets fourth edition, 2007. The gram stain procedure is a differential staining procedure that involves multiple steps. In micro, improper lab technique could cause you or one of your classmates to become ill. However, this textbook is the first of its kind, as it discusses the simple gram stain procedure as a valuable tool for the detection of fungal elements. The gram stain is a differential method of staining used to assign bacteria to one of two groups grampositive and gramnegative based on the properties of their cell walls. Christian gram in 1884, and categorizes bacteria according to their gram character gram positive or gram negative. The gram stain is the most important staining procedure in microbiology. Mybook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price. Sputum grams stain and culture can be performed noninvasively and are inexpensive diagnostic tests. The most widely used staining procedure in microbiology is the gram stain, discovered by the danish scientist and physician hans christian joachim gram in 1884. This book is a concise and wellorganized collection of excellent photomicrographs.
Diagnostic power to get to learn the basic and the case of specimen collection, staining and observation from the gram stain. We will be performing the gram stain and endospore staining procedures in lab, and view prepared slides that highlight some of the other cellular structures present in some bacteria. Clinical microbiology laboratory plays several important roles in the management of bacterial. The procedure is named for the person who developed the technique, danish bacteriologist hans christian gram. We will discuss this and other applications of gram staining in more detail in later chapters. Gram positive and gram negative, based on the differences of the chemical and physical properties of the cell wall. The gram stain, originally developed in 1884 by christian gram, is probably the most important procedure in all of microbiology.
As a group of organisms that are too small to see and best known for being agents of disease and death, microbes are not always appreciated for the numerous supportive and positive contributions they make to the living world. When handled properly, the organisms we use in our microbiology class should not pose a risk. Gram staining is a quick procedure used to look for the presence of bacteria in tissue samples and to characterise bacteria as grampositive or gramnegative, based on the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls. The gram stain is the most important and universally used staining technique in the bacteriology laboratory. Gram was actually using dyes on human cells, and found that bacteria preferentially bind some dyes. It has to be one of the most repeated procedures done in any lab. The kit has activities for practicing staining techniques, including staining bacterial cells to examine their morphology, and gram staining to determine if bacteria are grampositive, gramnegative, or both.
The dye had to stay on the slide for about one minute before rinsing with deionized water and blotted dry. Proper safety techniques are important in any laboratory setting, but they are imperative in microbiology. Using a specific staining procedure, it is possible to. This page includes the following topics and synonyms. Gram staining involves a fourpart process, which includes. The gram reaction reflects fundamental differences in the biochemical and structural properties of bacteria. Gram stain microbiology lab simple book production.
Designed to support a course in microbiology, microbiology. In addition this stain also allows determination of cell morphology, size, and arrangement. This was developed in 1884 by a danish bacteriologist, hans christian gram. This book has been specifically designed for people working in the medical microbiology laboratory with little or no practical experience in. Isolation of pure culture, gramstaining, and microscopic observation 1. Amanda lab report 1 microbiology laboratory title differentiating organisms using the gram stain introduction the experiment conducted was based upon the known attributes of two different groups of bacteria, those that are gram positive, and those that are gram negative. Gramstaining was firstly introduced by cristian gram in 1883. It was devised by a danish physician, hans christian gram, in 1884.1222 560 1071 430 1414 965 289 942 1063 818 185 11 1500 397 105 501 623 1417 1073 493 176 218 949 346 1532 529 1008 761 1308 55 1199 1282 183 261 367 158 669